France ruled Chad with a relatively light hand, enlisting tribal leaders from its 200 different ethnic groups to provide security. In the wet and dry tropical zone, the Sara group forms a significant element of the population in the central parts of the Chari and Logone river basins. 2020-01-06. A number of Darfur ethnic groups such as the Zaghawa, Masalit, and Mahiriyya also live in Chad, which has made it easier for conflicts to spread across borders. At least 22 people have been killed in southern Chad in the latest instance of deadly ethnic violence between nomadic herders and sedentary farmers, the communications minister said. Islamization in Kanem came very early and was followed by the conversion to Islam of the major political entities of the region, such as the sultanates of Wadai, Bagirmi, and Fitri, and—more recently—the Saharan region. Follow us on Instagram. U.S. State Department spokesman Sean McCormack says that the United States is concerned about the situation along the border between Chad and Sudan": The cause was a dispute over access to a well being used by both displaced villagers and livestock. Burkina Faso. 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Porous, ethnically intertwined borders affected Darfur during the Chadian civil wars of the 1980s, in which Libya became heavily involved. ... it has more than 200 different ethnic groups and languages. [2] The slave trade between sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East passed through the slave markets of Chad and Western Sudan, slave-trading was a key component of Chad's historic economy,[4] and this brought people of various ethnicities into Chad. Post-colonial Chad was marred by both a small scale war with Libya and a protracted internal conflict from 1966 to the 1990s. [5] The CIA Factbook estimates the largest ethnic groups as of the 2014-2015 census as:[6], Other little-known ethnic groups believed to be living in Chad include the Kujarke people.[7]. To date, case study analyses on the Lake Chad basin are sorely lacking and yet concerns about relationships between water and conflict in Lake Chad abound. Tensions between indigenous settled farmers and nomadic Arab herders in the arid Sahel have simmered for years, occasionally erupting into deadly clashes. As a result, leadership and presidency in Chad drifted back and forth between the Christian southerners and Muslim northerners. resources and water conflict (Goulden et al., 2008). Most of the violence follows a similar script: herders, sometimes crossing the border from Sudan, drive their stock on to farmers' fields, damaging crops and sparking a confrontation between the communities. There were approximately 200 ethnic groups speaking more than 120 languages and dialects. And Chad has also had to deal with hundreds of thousands of refugees from the conflicts in neighbouring Sudan and the Central African Republic, putting further strain on one of the world’s poorest countries. Burkina Faso is the latest country to fall victim to the instability plaguing Africa’s … 2.7 Million people have left their homes and now live in camps near Darfur's main towns. Other Muslim groups include the Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe/Fulani, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba. Ethno-linguistically, the groups may be divided into: Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition, online version, "Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations", "On the position of Kujarke within Chadic", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnic_groups_in_Chad&oldid=991489904, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 09:43. Transnational ethnic groups and conflict: The Zaghawa in Chad and Sudan Chad is the fifth largest country in Africa. Deadly violence broke out last month in one village between nomadic Fulani herdsmen and members of the Buduma ethnic group, who left their Lake Chad island homes last year following Boko Haram attacks there. The population can be broadly divided between those in the east, north and west who follow Islam, and the peoples of the south, the five southernmost prefectures, who are mostly Christian or animist. READ MORE: Dozens dead in new bout of intercommunal fighting in Chad. Existing case studies concentrate on the Nile river basin and individual basins in the Middle East (e.g. National/Racial/Ethnic Minorities. Others include the Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang, Moussei, and Massa. The pro-Sudanese militias are accused of carrying out ethnic cleansing against black Africans in Darfur. People left to go live in Chad. Most of the conflict is in Darfur, but it has also effected Sudan. Media outlets and NGOs allege that officials do not consistently enforce domestic court orders against people of the same ethnic group as themselves. Chad - Chad - Ethnic groups: As might be expected, the linguistic variety reflects an ethnic composition of great complexity. Lowi, 1999). The armed conflicts in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Mali, Niger and Nigeria all worsened in 2019. Due to its geographic location, the Republic of Chad is one of the most culturally diverse countries in Africa today with several ethnic and racial groups living together. Nearby, conflict in and around the Lake Chad Basin area has continued. The ethnic divisions and lawlessness, due to the withdrawal of the Malian state, that characterised the aftermath of rebellions presented a window of opportunity for terrorist groups to settle in the north. They live in the valleys of the Chari and Logone rivers and are farmers of considerable skill. For the African Union, 2020 is supposed to be a landmark year. A picture is worth a thousand words. The clashes left 11 dead on each side – some hit with arrows – and a further 34 injured, the government spokesman said. Chad - Chad - Religion: About three-fifths of the population are Sunni Muslim. The Underlying Conflict and International Missions The insecurity on the border with the Sudan, where the Sudanese refugees fleeing the Darfur conflict are living in camps, or the power vacuum in Chad, are fundamentally policing and humanitarian issues requiring aid … Among the non-Muslim indigenous peoples, the most important (and the largest single group in Chad) are the Sara, about 30 percent of the population. A curfew was imposed in the Kabbia region where the fighting took place and 66 people were arrested following the incident on Monday and Tuesday, minister and government spokesman Cherif Mahamat Zene told AFP. A worsening crisis in the Sahel and Lake Chad region. The security challenges are linked to the rise of violent extremism and the proliferation of armed non-state groups, such as Boko Haram, which has spread from Nigeria across the Lake Chad region. The government struggles to provide services to roughly 176,000 internally displaced persons and the more than 440,000 refugees in Chad at the end of 2019 who fled conflicts in neighboring countries. Its ‘silencing the guns’ initiative is aimed at ‘ending all wars, civil conflicts, gender-based violence, violent conflicts and preventing genocide in the continent by 2020.’ The long-simmering crisis in the Lake Chad basin exemplifies this need. Conflict between pastoralists (herders) and farmers resulted in deaths and injuries. Chad's post-independence history has been marked by instability and violence, stemming mostly from tension between the mainly Arab-Muslim north … The Shuwa of Chad form a relatively homogeneous group, localized in the regions of Chari Baguirmi and Ouaddai, but mostly seminomadic. The southern part of the country was historically the cross roads of the caravan routes below the Sahara, forming a link between West Africa and the Arabic region, as well as one between North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. The southern part of the country was historically the cross roads of the caravan routes below the Sahara, forming a link between … With more than 450,000 refugees from Sudan, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria, Chad continues to deal with the consequences of tension in neighboring countries and hosts a high number of refugees, who represent approximately 4% of the country’s total population. The area now known as Chad was home to an estimated 200 ethnic groups and about 110 languages. The Government operates jointly with these militias, known as “Jingaweid,” in attacks on civilians from the Fur, Masaalit, and Zaghawa ethnic groups. Internally displaced in Chad: 11 July 2007 Trapped between civil conflict and Sudan’s Darfur crisis Executive summary Over the last two years, an estimated 172,600 people have been internally displaced in the south-eastern regions of Chad bordering Sudan’s Darfur, including more than 120,000 within the last seven months. READ MORE: Chad declares emergency in east after dozens die in ethnic violence. Conflict is still Africa’s biggest challenge in 2020. Postcolonial Chad has, like Sudan, been marked by deep regional-ethnic divisions and a violent history of struggle for power among the various elites that have alternative visions … The governments of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria engaged in fighting against Boko Haram must take seriously their responsibilities to protect civilians from … Sudan, Chad, and the Central African Republic The conflict in Sudan’s Darfur region increasingly threatens two neighboring countries—Chad and the Central African Republic… Chad, one of the poorest countries in the world, also struggles with deep-seated issues around governance, corruption and inclusion. 200,000 people also look for Islamization began as early as the 8th century and was mostly complete by the 11th, when Islam became the official religion of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The causes of the conflict are intertwined with the interests of neighboring Libya and Sudan and the former colonial power, France. [2] The peoples of Chad carry significant ancestry from Eastern, Central, Western, and Northern Africa. [1], The 14 million Chad people belong to some 200 ethnicities, who speak numerous languages. This is raising tensions. The confrontation began despite the local prefect's mediation efforts on Monday. Ethnic violence has also erupted along the southeast Chad- Sudan border, further increasing the fear that conflict in Darfur has spread into Chad. 13 peace organizations moved out of Sudan and 3 from Darfur. Pastoral conflict is the motor of other conflicts in Chad as it breeds ethno-political rivalry and insecurity. (AA Archive) At least 22 people have been killed in southern Chad in the latest instance of deadly ethnic violence between nomadic herders and sedentary farmers, the communications minister said. The Shuwa established an economy of slave trade]] across the Sudan region, and in Chad there was a tradition of slave raids (ghazw) under the Ouaddai and Baguirmi which persisted well into the 20th century. The temporary ceasefire called by Myanmar’s military covering Kachin and Shan states is undermined by the conflict in Rakhine and Chin states. The population of Chad has numerous ethnic groups. The area, which includes Libya, Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, and the Central African Republic, has been wracked by violent conflicts directly linked to environmental calamity and exacerbated by a mismanaged western intervention in Libya. "Several villages on both sides were set on fire," he added. This site uses cookies. In particular, t he failure to equitably distribute oil revenues has deepened existing social divisions in Chad, including along regional and ethnic lines. The trigger for the violence was cattle theft, sparked by the animals trampling farmers' fields, another official said. The ongoing conflict complicates the possibility of formal peace talks with EAOs that have not signed the NCA, including the FPNCC. Since its independence from France in 1960, Chad has been swamped by the civil war between the Arab-Muslims of the north and the Sub-Saharan - Christians of the south. The peoples of Chad carry significant ancestry from Eastern, Central, Western, and Northern Africa. Thriving on illicit trafficking and mixing with local populations, these groups managed to gradually gain influence before the 2012 crisis. The 14 million Chad people belong to some 200 ethnicities, who speak numerous languages. The great majority of Muslims are found in the north and east of Chad. Pastoral conflicts are complicated to resolve because of the lack of political will to deal objectively with inter-ethnic conflict. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. N'djamena the capital of Chad contains about 1 million people. Myanmar’s ethnic armed conflicts show no sign of stopping in 2019. Subscribe to our Youtube channel for all latest in-depth, on the ground reporting from around the world. Chad finds itself in a complicated and conflict-ridden situation, in the middle of the Sahel region. [3] The population can be broadly divided between those in the east, north and west who follow Islam, and the peoples of the south, the five southernmost prefectures, who are mostly Christian or animist. A general classification may nevertheless be made, again in terms of the three regions of Chad. In the past year, over 700,000 civilians have been forced to flee their rural villages; over 110,000 refugees are encamped along the Chad border. This diversity shaped the history of Chad. SIL Ethnologue reports more than 130 distinct languages spoken in Chad. 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