In 1792 French troops invaded Germany and were at first pushed back by imperial forces. In 1747, Frederick invited Johann Sebastian Bach to his court and played music with him. In the Enlightenment, scientists had described a world that functioned according to laws laid down by God, who had set everything up and then left it to its own devices. The term represents a phase in the intellectual history of Europe, but it also serves to define programs of reform in which influential literati, inspired by a common faith in the possibility of a better world, outlined specific targets for criticism and proposals for action. This exceptional movement began in the 1500s and spread through France, England, Germany and other leading nations of Europe by 1700s. The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries. Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutist) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power. The Enlightenment was enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as 1500. The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. For example, in France it became associated with anti-government and anti-Church radicalism, while in Germany it reached deep into the middle classes and took a spiritualistic and nationalistic tone without threatening governments or established churches. This intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. This was deism. But at the Battle of Valmy in late 1792, the French army, a revolutionary citizens’ army fighting on its own soil, defeated the professional imperial army. This article focuses on creative literature (as opposed to scholarly literature); key scholarly developments of the Enlightenment are covered elsewhere (see History of Western Philosophy , History of Science ). How Germany got the Russian Revolution off the ground Few people realize the German kaiser was also involved: He gave aid to the Bolsheviks in 1917. Mozart’s genius did … Philosophes believed that they could use Newton's scientific method to discover the secrets of politics, economics, etc. In fact, whether we would even have some of his most beloved operas without the guiding principles of the Age is doubtful. His compositions were informed by the spirit of that era, and Enlightenment ideas were integral to his music, particularly the operas. Now, it seemed that the world in its present state was not directly created by God. He invited many artists, philosophers and theorists to his court and spent his time conversing with them. I will discuss the Enlightenment and describe the impact it had on societies of the 18th century. History of Europe - History of Europe - The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment was both a movement and a state of mind. This approach, which emerged in late Enlightenment Germany (and subsequently flourished across the West), is known as Romanticism. The Enlightenment took hold in most European countries, often with a specific local emphasis. How did Newton influence the Enlightenment? By 1794 France had secured control of the Rhineland, which it was to occupy for twenty years. However, Darwin’s theories left a shrinking place for God. The philosophes were also influenced by the newtonian world-machine. Through Frederick, Sanssouci Palace became the intellectual center of Prussian enlightenment by time. 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