Nicotine, a chemical mostly within the plants of the Solanaceae family, can be an alkaloid and is available accumulated in the leaves of these plants, although biosynthesis of this chemical occurs in the roots of the plants. Nicotine is among the major the different parts of addictive plants like tobacco (0.6%-3.0%) and is the reason behind their addiction in humans because of its psychoactive nature.
The follow are 10 interesting facts about nicotine.
The name nicotine originates from the scientific name of the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum. The scientific name of the tobacco plant is itself named the French ambassador to Portugal Jean Nicot de Villemain. Villeman is credited for sending tobacco seeds and plant saplings to Paris in 1560 because of its use in medicinal purposes.
Nicotine was initially extracted from the tobacco plant by German physician Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Posselt and chemist Karl Ludwig Reimann in 1828. Following its discovery Posselt and Reimann labelled it as a poison. In fact nicotine can be an antiherbivore chemical, which causes addiction when consumed in smaller amounts (1mg or less) and death if used high amounts (30mg-60mg).
Nicotine is an alkaloid with the chemical formula C10H14N2. Its IUPAC name is 3[2,5-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine. It has a molecular mass of 162.12g/mol. Nicotine is really a hygroscopic liquid which is miscible with water as a nitrogenous base. Its density is 1.01g/cm3, melting point -79oC and boiling point 247oC. The nicotine molecule includes a half life of 2 hours and its own metabolism is hepatic. Nicotine can be optically active and has two enantiomeric forms.
4. Nicotine as an insecticide
As already said nicotine is an antiherbivore drug which if used huge amounts is fatal alive forms. That is why nicotine laden tobacco has been used as an insecticide even prior to the World War II. But following the WWII its usage drastically lowered due to the availability of cheap synthetic insecticides which are more easily available than tobacco and less bad for mammals. However in the recent years the hype surrounding organic farming has again increased the interest of the farmers in the usage of tobacco as a pesticide as an alternate to chemical pesticides.
5. Nicotine addiction
Our central nervous system has certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotine binds to several of these and increases the quantity of several neurotransmitters. Among these neurotransmitters dopamine is one such neurotransmitter that is significantly increased during nicotine use and is in charge of the sense of euphoria and relaxation due to the utilization of tobacco (nicotine) products.
6. Psychoactive effects of nicotine
Nicotine is really a psychoactive substance as it is mood altering. It causes both euphoria and relaxation. In your body nicotine is metabolised in the liver. First following its metabolism nicotine results in the release of glucose from the liver and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla. This sudden release of glucose and epinephrine causes euphoria after the intake of nicotine. After the initial euphoria nicotine results in relaxation, increased alertness and sharpness by focusing on different neurotransmitters of your body. Nicotine also has pain relieving properties.
7. Unwanted effects of nicotine intake
Tough it looks like nicotine is a wonderful substance to increase one’s sharpness, induce calmness and elevate one’s mood you can find more negative areas of nicotine intake than positive. Among these the most frequent side effects of nicotine intake are an elevated risk of hypertension and heart attacks. It is sad that each cigarette a man smokes reduces his life time by 14 years. Moreover since nicotine has been found to affect the working of Estrogen on hippocampus, hence in the end nicotine users are inclined to amnesia and other related diseases.
Nicotine is known as to be more toxic than most typical drugs like heroin and cocaine. More harm is performed by nicotine to the body since it is readily absorbed by the bloodstream and reaches the brain through the lungs within 7 seconds of its intake either orally or as nicotine patches.
9. parhaat nikotiinipussit Use of nicotine in medical science
Though nicotine is not a doctor’s companion, it is yet not his worst foe. Nicotine known because of its pain relieving properties is being researched upon to be utilized as a potential pain killer minus its harmful effects. Nicotine has also been found to lessen preeclampsia, allergic asthma; among others by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent.
10. Nicotine in literature
Nicotine has been personified in popular literature as Nick O’ Teen, a humanoid villainous character in Superman comics that was created as part of anti-nicotine drive to teach children concerning the ill-effects of nicotine intake in virtually any form.
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